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澳洲论文查重:大科学和曼哈顿项目

澳洲论文查重:大科学和曼哈顿项目

为了加强科学研究,整个城市被政府为目的开发的企业,如美国和Akademgorodok橡树岭的苏联。大科学的进步帮助科学家们出来独立和个人的工作,使他们能够在一个工作小组,他们可以工作在一个层次结构的水平。这使他们能够学到更多技能像管理、管理、基金上涨。他们发现自己在团体工作的技术人员、管理人员、工程师和其他科学家。这导致了引入研究的高等教育水平,而不是仅仅在研究科学研究(福尔曼)。

作为研究的成本,和科学仪器,科学家和工程师的工资非常高,有可能只有政府企业与国际机构负担的过程研究。这一趋势把注意力从研究人员开展了在大学和社会中,他们研究的主要中心之前的引入“大科学”,第二次世界大战之前。文章写成“大科学”的研究现在写的“打,甚至有时数以百计的合著者”,而在此之前在小科学研究,写文章或文学材料单独或通过一些合作者。产生的研究是机器可读和可用于引用后很长时间的研究和发展。

批评人士对“大科学”

是冷战结束后,“大科学面临许多批评家是应该崩溃的科学研究的基本原则。通常结果后被吸引大量投资和昂贵的机器是很难证明,证实并演示。科学方法和设备只提供给那些已经建立了留下新毕业生,创建一个精英主义的概念。增加政府资助的研究被认为是军事资金和保罗·福尔曼的观点,“在第二次世界大战和冷战,国防资金引发了大规模的转变从基础研究到应用研究物理。”

澳洲论文查重:大科学和曼哈顿项目

In order to enhance the scientific research, whole cities were developed for the purpose by government Enterprises; such as Oak’s Ridge in United States and Akademgorodok of Soviet Union. The advancement of big science helped scientists to come out of the independent and individual work and made them able to work in a group where they could work in a hierarchy level. This made them able to learn more skills like administration, management, fund rising. They found themselves working in groups with technicians, administrators, engineers and other scientists. This led to the introduction of research at the level of higher education, rather than just on the research scientific studies (Forman).
As the cost of research, and scientific instruments and payrolls of the scientists and engineers were very high, it was possible for only government’s enterprises and international agencies, to afford the process of research. This trend drew the attention away from the researchers conducted in universities and societies, as they were the main hub of research before the introduction of ‘Big Science,’ prior to World War II. Article written as a research in ‘Big Science’ were now written by “dozen or even sometimes hundreds of coauthors” at a time, whereas prior to this in small science research, article or literary material was written individually or by few collaborators. The researches produced are machine readable and can be used for references long after the research and development.
Critics about ‘Big Science’
It was when the Cold War ended, that ‘Big science faced many critics as it was supposed to have collapse the basic principles of scientific research. Often results which were drawn after heavy investment and expensive machinery were hard to prove, confirm and demonstrate. Scientific method and facilities were only available to those who were already established leaving behind the freshly graduates, creating a concept of elitism. An increased government funding in the research was considered as the military funding and as the argument of Paul Forman states that, “during World War II and the Cold War, the massive scale of defense-related funding prompted a shift in physics from basic to applied research.”