In order to enhance the scientific research, whole cities were developed for the purpose by government Enterprises; such as Oak’s Ridge in United States and Akademgorodok of Soviet Union. The advancement of big science helped scientists to come out of the independent and individual work and made them able to work in a group where they could work in a hierarchy level. This made them able to learn more skills like administration, management, fund rising. They found themselves working in groups with technicians, administrators, engineers and other scientists. This led to the introduction of research at the level of higher education, rather than just on the research scientific studies (Forman).
As the cost of research, and scientific instruments and payrolls of the scientists and engineers were very high, it was possible for only government’s enterprises and international agencies, to afford the process of research. This trend drew the attention away from the researchers conducted in universities and societies, as they were the main hub of research before the introduction of ‘Big Science,’ prior to World War II. Article written as a research in ‘Big Science’ were now written by “dozen or even sometimes hundreds of coauthors” at a time, whereas prior to this in small science research, article or literary material was written individually or by few collaborators. The researches produced are machine readable and can be used for references long after the research and development.
Critics about ‘Big Science’
It was when the Cold War ended, that ‘Big science faced many critics as it was supposed to have collapse the basic principles of scientific research. Often results which were drawn after heavy investment and expensive machinery were hard to prove, confirm and demonstrate. Scientific method and facilities were only available to those who were already established leaving behind the freshly graduates, creating a concept of elitism. An increased government funding in the research was considered as the military funding and as the argument of Paul Forman states that, “during World War II and the Cold War, the massive scale of defense-related funding prompted a shift in physics from basic to applied research.”