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新西兰地理学论文代写:战略领域

新西兰地理学论文代写:战略领域

作者指出,战略领域的重新调整有助于阐明负责现代城市城市化和发展的新体系。私有化和放松管制有助于削弱国家机构的国家和权力。资本主义正在通过私有化相关力量的运作而得到推动。笔者认为,全球化的加强可以归因于国家组织的放松管制和国际间的经济一体化。作者指出,“在这些全球化的条件之中,是次国家的,特别是城市和地区;包含两个或两个以上国家以下实体的跨境地区;和超国家实体,即全球数字化市场和自由贸易集团“。世界各国组织结构发生了变化,这一变化背后的主要原因是经济活动的全球化。

新西兰地理学论文代写:战略领域
新的信息技术和跨国公司的力量已经成为全球化趋势增加的理由,伴随着全球经济的协调。距离的作用已经完全被中和,因为世界各地的信息技术设施越来越多。不仅发达国家,而且世界上发达国家和发达国家都经历了信息技术的高速发展,导致了城市和国家之间更多的合作与协调。因此,笔者认为信息技术的蓬勃发展是全球化的原因。由于本地和国际两级改善交通运输设施的联合运作,行业成果的超移动性已成为可能。跨境动态的增长包括政治,文化,经济和犯罪等方面的负面和正面变量。

新西兰地理学论文代写:战略领域

Author states that re-scaling of the strategic territories serve to articulate the new system that is responsible for the urbanization and development of cities in the modern era. Privatization and deregulation have contributed to weaken the nationals and authorities of state organization. Capitalism is being promoted by the operation of privatization associated forces. According to the writer, strengthening of globalization can be attributed to the deregulation of state organizations and economic integration among countries at international level. Writer states that, “Among these conditions of globalization are the sub-national, notably cities and regions; crossborder regions encompassing two or more sub-national entities; and supra-national entities, i.e. global digitalized markets and free trade blocs”. Organizational structure has been changed all over the world and the major reason behind this dynamic change is the globalization of economic activity.

新西兰地理学论文代写:战略领域
New informational technologies and the power of transnational corporations have become a reason to increase the trend of globalization, accompanied with global coordination in operations. Role of distance has been totally neutralized because of increased availability of information technology facilities all over the world. Not only developed countries but also the low developed and under developed nations of the world have experienced information technology booms resulting in the more cooperation and coordination among cities and countries. So, it can be concluded that author considers information technology boom to be the reason of globalization. Hyper mobility of industry outcomes has become possible because of the joint operation of improved communication and transportation facilities both at local and international levels. Growth of cross-border dynamics includes both negative and positive variables like that of political, cultural, economic and criminal aspects.

新西兰施工论文代写:项目进度

新西兰施工论文代写:项目进度

关键路径法是一种很好的项目进度管理方法。它用来计算最短的项目工期,有助于确定进度状态并反映任何原因和滞后。该方法基于计算最早开始,早结束,晚开始晚结束的日期来反映整个项目的所有活动(PMBOK 2013)。此外,任何关键路径上的延迟都会影响整个项目,因此项目经理需要监控关键路径上的所有活动。

挣值管理(EVM)方法用于项目绩效评估,协助项目经理评估过去和目前的工作和下一步的进度计划更新。它提供了一些精确的数据来帮助项目经理做出决定。这些数据是这个项目健康信息的唯一来源。

衡量项目绩效的三个关键因素包括计划价值(PV)、挣值(EV)和实际成本(AC)。根据PMBOK(2013):

进度差异:SV = EV – PV

成本差异:CV = EV – AC

进度性能指数

成本绩效指数

SV和SPI可以用来度量项目是否超出了预期的进度。CV和CPI表明成本超出预算或低于预算。

考虑到这一情况,项目计划在2年内完成,污染测试是影响项目进度的主要因素。如果以前公司有污染,项目进度将从“许可阶段”推迟,附加费用将被收取。项目发起人、项目经理、项目团队和环保局将参与这项活动。

新西兰施工论文代写:项目进度

Critical path method is a good way to manage project schedule. It is used to work out the shortest project duration, help to determine schedule status and reflect any leads and lags. This method based on calculates early start, early finish, late start and late finish dates to reflect all activities in whole project (PMBOK 2013). In addition, any delay on critical path can affect the whole project so project manager need to monitor all the activities that on critical path.

Earned value management (EVM) method is used for measurement of project performance, assist project manager to evaluate the past and present work and update the schedule plan for next step. It provides some precise data to help project manager make decision. That data is the only source of information about this project health.

There are three key factors to measure the project performance including planned value (PV), earned value (EV) and actual cost (AC). According to PMBOK (2013) :

Schedule Variance: SV = EV- PV

Cost Variance: CV = EV- AC

Schedule performance index: SPI = EV/PV

Cost performance index: CPI = EV/AC

SV and SPI are useful for measuring whether a project is ahead of the expect schedule or not. CV and CPI are indicating the cost is over budget or under budget.

Considering this case, where the project is planned to be finished in 2 years, contaminate test the main factor that affects project schedule. If there are any pollutions from previous company, the project schedule would be delayed from ‘permit phase ’and addition cost would be charged. Project sponsor, project manager, project team and EPA will be involved in this activity.