Walter Benjamin once said, ‘History is the subject of a structure whose site is not homogeneous, empty time, but time filled by the presence of the now.’ He argued that history creates an image of the human future and this argument has held true throughout the time.
Now coming to the given essay, author Stuart Hall argues that any study related to or involving popular culture in any mix should always begin with something he termed as “the double movement of containment and resistance”. He says that in the world, all through the prolonged transition from agrarian to industrial capitalism, continuous struggle over languages as well as traditions, and ways of the labour class, the uneducated citizenry, and the poor, the so called popular classes existed. “In the culture of the popular class, capital had a significant stake because the basic rules of a new social order worked out around capital, required process of re education, in its holistic view” But the essay also mentions that the term popular implies a process whereby “the people” took the centre stage and in turn made sure the ruling class is aware of their culture in a number of different ways. It resulted in the complication of the projects involving transformation of capital and basic state bureaucracies. Hall tries to convince that the popular should not be thought of being only a site where the ruling power is affirmed but also a platform of stiff resistance against the same. He wants us to view the popular, as the primary space of struggle, an area of both consent and dissent and not just the subsidiary to the economic transformation.