Having reviewed some literatures on product standardization and adaptation strategy, it is notable that which kind of product strategy to choose is one of the principal questions and it depends on culture, and the nature of product.
From the perspective of the company, both strategies are strongly recommended to be considered. In order to develop a global product strategy, they have to consider not only the market characteristics, but also the firm’s condition and the industry they operate. The type of industry plays a major role in choosing the marketing strategy. For instance, almost in the computer chip industry, standardization may be required. On the other hand, a certain extent of adaptation may be imperative to consider the food industry with the cultural perspective. In terms of the market globalization, whether to standardize or adapt a product has given rise to a dispute for many years. Some literatures pointed out that a balanced product strategy concerning standardization and adaptation depends on the type of industry and the firm’s operation to achieve success in the international market. As a result, it can be concluded that complete standardization or complete adaptation of global marketing strategies of multinational firms is unacceptable. Moreover, culture still plays an important role in choosing the marketing strategy. Therefore, combination of standardization strategy with some adaptation would be considered as the best option for multinational corporations.
Research philosophy mainly studies the general and fundamental problems connecting with systematic search for existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language (Teichman and Evans, 1999). Saunders et al (2009) suggested that when a researcher embarked on research, he developed knowledge in a particular field. They also pointed out that significant assumptions about the way people see the world were included in the research philosophy. Research philosophy is the first layer of research ‘Union’, including positivism, realism, interpretivism, and pragmatism (see Figure 1). Saunders et al (2009) explained these philosophies as following: positivism is at a position where something can be positive, truthful or known; realism believes that reality exists unconventionally of observers; interpretivism holds that people create and associate their own subjective meanings when they interact with the world; pragmatism attaches much importance to the connection of the practice and theory.
For this research study, philosophy of positivism will be adopted. Remenyi et al (1998) cited in Saunders et al (2009) suggested that research which reflects positivism prefers to “work with an observable social reality and that the end product of such research can be law-like generalizations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientists”. Under the philosophy of positivism, it is likely to use the existing theory to develop hypotheses for collecting data. These hypotheses will be tested and confirmed, and will lead to the further development of theory, which then may be tested by further researches (Saunders et al, 2009).