營銷是允許商品和服務從公司轉移到最終消費者的管理過程。用美國市場營銷協會(American Marketing Association)的話來說，市場營銷這個術語可以定義為一組流程，這些流程幫助創建、開發和交換對客戶、客戶和合作夥伴以及整個社會都具有重要意義的產品(AMA, 2013)。同樣，本報告準備研究和分析市場營銷的不同方面，特別強調國際市場營銷。所有形式的國際營銷傳播都有一個基本的目的，那就是確保預期的信息在發送方和接收方之間準確傳達，以達到預期的結果(Doole et al .， 2016:303)。用相關的例子批判性地討論國際市場中溝通失敗的各種來源，並解釋功課代寫-國際市場營銷。
Marketing communication can be referred to as the exchange if information with the stakeholders and other organizations in order to arrive at some result. Not only the communication lays emphasis on the accurate transfer of the message from the sender to the receiver but also it ensures that the marketing process functions in an efficient manner (Castronovo and Huang, 2012). The communication process is itself very complex in the domestic environment, and when speaking about the international markets, it is exposed to more complexities and challenges to name some are the different marketing conditions, differences in the availability of media, language differences, cultural sensitivities and so on (Doole and Lowe, 2008). There are various sources of international communication failure and they are discussed as below:
Legal constraints: Marketer is restricted on the manner in which they advertise their product and what product they want to be marketed. For instance, there are restrictions on the products such as cigarettes and products of pharmaceutical industry.
Linguistic limitations: There are language barriers as the different companies belonging to different cultures have varied dialects and accents. This also affects the manner in which the advertisement is published to the public (Cateora, 2008). In addition, the countries such as Switzerland have the problem of multiple languages existing at one time.
Cultural diversity: In the bid to communicate with the people belonging to different cultures, it is much more challenging. Hence, advertising of the products is largely affected by these complexities in the international market.
Media limitations: These comprises of the problems of advertising in the international market which includes the coverage problems, availability and cost problems. The marketing of the products is more challenging as the television commercial that is telecasted 10 times in a year and is not viewed by only 2 people, and then it is a matter of botheration.
Production and cost limitation: This limitation is caused due to the issues such as poor production or low cost utilized in the reproduction of the advertisements in specific countries. For instance, the low quality of the products printed in China was supported by Kodak such as by producing single sheet print document which was the newspaper supplement.
The below section discusses the points which assist in minimizing the international communication:
Learning how the receiver is receiving the communication channel
Training of the international employees for better work performance
Assigning the mentors to assist the foreign workers with diversified cultural expectations
Practicing open door communication and also involving an intermediary
Promoting company-wide communication by avoiding difficult phrases or slang
Adhering to the rules and code of conduct of the business and managers making decisions that are unbiased
Hence, the above points enable to understand the barriers in the international communication and the ways that can be adopted by the companies for minimizing those communication failures (Blair, Czaja and Blair, 2013).
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