布里斯班论文代写-国际机构及其政策影响。世界银行、国际货币基金组织、亚洲开发银行等机构是影响影响贫民窟增长或消除的国内政策的一些机构。这些机构是支持发展中国家的福利机制，与联合国减贫目标紧密相连(Anjaria & McFarlane, 2011)。世界银行(World Bank)一直直言不讳地表示，它毫无疑问可以为发展中城市的福利项目、贫民窟项目和保障性住房提供资金。虽然它只是简单地寻找一个负债的城市作为债务来获得利息收入，即使项目的结果取得了实质性的进展，也可以登记在案。
The World Bank is a sponsor of specific infrastructure projects in Mumbai, which primarily includes primary city roads (Asthana & Ali, 2004). Building new roads required the slums stationed on it to be removed and relocated to a new area, and this transferred the entire slum to a new choice of location. This does not eliminate or upgrade the slum, but only relocates it to a different location. Mumbai is struggling with a crippled infrastructure and upgrading slums to better liveable conditions (Geyer, 2002). International institutions have had a significant impact on slum growth. The institutions, being liberal in ideology, suggest liberalisation and decentralization for further allowing a free hand in amending slum upgrading policies. The major impact it had on Mumbai is to develop a slum-dedicated policy called Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA). It was tasked with collecting all data on slum dwellers, identifying candidates who are to receive compensatory welfare housing under privatised development, and to relocate and see through the possession of slum dwellers in the new dwellings. As a result private real estate, developers were able to purchase land occupied by the slum occupants, resettle them in a vertical building and the free space left for them to sale as a free sale component. This policy influenced by the international institutions had a major impact on the slum upgrading drive, and private developers got a tag of supporting welfare housing with benefits of continuing their for-profit projects.
The above chart shows the contribution of slums to the total population of city significantly high in Mumbai, and the main reason is disparity in growth of cities and it projected as an economic centre of the nation with unlimited opportunities.
Primary issue remains the same in Mumbai even after years of decentralization that it is no definitively effective policy for slum upgrading and eradication (Narayan, 2007). With political instability in central and provincial governments in India where the ruling central government could not be the same as the ruling state government, there are conflicts of opinion that retard slum upgrading. International institutions have been instrumental in providing financial support for infrastructure development, which in turn is affecting the cities with a rise in slum growth. Slum redevelopment being a private affair in Mumbai, the pace of improvement is only as fast as the availability of funds for basic amenities of water and electricity (Mines & Lamb, 2010). Ghadially (2007) stated that most slum dwellers consists of women who bear the brunt of lack of basic amenities and proper sanitation facilities, affecting food quality, childcare, and any resurgence of hope of a better future. Water remains the authority of the provincial government, and electricity is majorly privatised, which has raised the cost of slum dwellers. International institutions have a great influence in privatisation of these services, and this has cost the slum dwellers dearly.
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