Adger (2006) argued that natural disaster occurs because of environmental changes and lack of adaptation in the society. This could be due to the presence of stresses and environments turn to be highly vulnerable to even slightest changes in the natural phenomenon. Climate change is regarded as a natural change due to artificial happenings that tend to totally affect the environment. Vulnerability increases when the sustainability of livelihood decreases and people are unable to come out of poverty and build a better environment.
This chart shows the evolution of vulnerability from the environment. Davoudi et al. (2012) also stated that planning is highly important to manage disasters. The high nature of uncertainty in the society is because of manmade events such as terrorist attacks, youth riots, climate events and encroachments. Lately, resilience is found to influence the environment to a greater extent. Ecological resilience denotes the time taken by the system to return from the state of shock. Human institutions should necessarily ensure better governance to handle and be prepared to such disasters. The environment also demands better social planning and development of socio – ecological interdependencies to make the entire land safer.
Disaster risk reduction lies in the hands of people. This concept includes the infrastructure modifications that should take place to manage the consequences of natural hazards. Risk reduction could generally be in terms of environment as well as society. The concerned system should create policies for every person to follow to maintain a better and safer living. These policies will also help reduce the impact of such disasters and reduce severity. On the whole, the financial system will improve. Disaster risk reduction is supposed to be the work of every person and not just the governments own initiative. Wolf et al (2010) highlighted the vulnerability of people to slightest climate change and heat wave and demands the necessity to improve social capital by means of public health programs and adaptation techniques.
The paper deals with the case of Wenchuan earthquake that devastated uncountable buildings and infrastructure and the aftershocks could be observed through larger portions of China. Evaluating the impacts and causes for this earthquake, it is evident that people have been the key reasons. Earlier in 2000s, migrants have settled in this location and the area underwent rapid urbanization. This eventually led to structural maladjustments, encroachment, livelihood damages and economic backwardness. Also, it is clear that there is “no such thing called as a natural disaster” and disaster, by itself, is because of the social and environmental changes happening in a region due to various reasons caused by the people. Public awareness, studies, contingency plans, emergency preparedness, relief programs and mental health programs are few examples by which the impacts can be reduced.