By performing the analysis of the literature related to New Hollywood cinema, different scholars have provided different understanding of the term. Some of the critical debates and discussions about the New Hollywood have provided the contradictory and confusing definitions of the term “New Hollywood”. Corrigan (2007) has stated that New Hollywood was a time that appeared many new filmmakers and directors such as Coppola, Spielberg, Lucas, and Scorsese. Schatz (2004) has referred American cinema as New Hollywood because the period took place after World War II when the studio system had collapsed. For most of the scholars, the general term for New Hollywood means the American cinema and Hollywood films produced after the Second World War. In 1950s, the studio system in America collapsed (King, 2002).
For some of the scholars, New Hollywood is a general term. While for other, it is a very specific term that refers to certain films and the period of American films. However, the term New Hollywood can be considered as an important term which is associated with the stage of change and experimentation in Hollywood. This period was also called as Hollywood Renaissance that mainly took place between the late 1960s and late 1970s (Smith, 1998). This was the time that marked the presence of the new generation of the young and talented film directors. This new generation influenced the production procedure, marketing and new concepts in films.
The classical era of American cinema was the period when movies were mass produced by the studios that had the guaranteed markets. The films were only produced under the names of the studios and were produced in large numbers Schatz (2004). The classical period of Hollywood cinema continued from 1930 to 1945. Some striking thinking about the classical cinema was that Classical Hollywood was considered to be the standard style of cinema that included mass production. However, “the Classical Hollywood model would not seem like a film at all” (Ray 1985, as cited in Kokonis, 2009, p. 174). The films produced by studio were the great commercial success and were significantly popular among the public (Kokonis, 2009).
The term “New Hollywood” can be regarded as the term that originally means a period of significant changes and experimentation in Hollywood cinema. The generational shift in the filmmakers and Hollywood executives was also a significant factor to bring change and to shift the cinema from ‘Classical’ to ‘New’ (McLean, 2009). Nevertheless, the golden age of the American cinema could not last forever. The studio system could not survive in the changing political and social waves. These changes made it impossible for the studio system to work more than few decades. The fall of the studio system started in late 1960s. The new dawn had evolved in the American cinemas.