本篇澳洲论文代写-城市衰退讲了Fred(2003)用房产价值作为经济活动的代理,同时恭维Glaeser的模型,以量化Buffalo所面临的城市衰退(Silverman et al., 2013)。研究人员发现,市中心的物业估值总额从1930年的峰值约6亿美元下降到1980年的区区4500万美元。Collins(2005)研究了城市衰落对房地产价值的影响,重点研究了面临种族骚乱的城市中业主价值占住房下降的方式。重点是白人和黑人家庭之间产生的房产价值差距。

考虑到便利设施的重要性,进一步了解买不起房对布法罗城市衰退的影响。澳洲论文代写在平均收入上升的社区,房价会上升;在收入下降的社区,房价会下降(Smith, 1996)。一种可能是在住房存量的变化范围内。人们认为,当收入较高的居民在一所房子内搬家时,住房存量也会有所改善。同样地,当收入较低的居民搬进一所房子内,他们更有可能会因为财政紧缩而推迟房屋的维护(Weaver and Bagchi-Sen, 2013)。然而,当居民的收入正向或负向变化时,房价的变化可能会有进一步的驱动因素和其他社区特征的改变(Weaver and Bagchi-Sen, 2013)。以同样的方式,自然方式的便利,如宜人的天气条件或海景有助于使该地方更令人向往。研究还发现,住在高收入邻居附近的便利设施,会影响附近的住房需求,如较低的犯罪率,良好的学校,增加的娱乐选择等。探索这些设施对房价影响的方法可以通过一种措施来实现,该措施可以指出并非由于住房存量变化而进行的修改(Glaeser和Gyourko, 2011)。它控制在每个人口普查区域内的房屋结构特点的修改,如独立住宅的比例,卧室数量和平均房屋年龄。通过对收入范围内的变化与土地价值测量范围内的变化进行比较,发现了各种相似性。家庭收入的变化与土地层面上的土地价值测量的变化具有65%的相关性(Goldman, 2011)。这一发现表明,澳洲论文代写土地价值的变化更有可能是由与居民收入相关的社区特征改变(如娱乐、餐馆、犯罪率和学校质量)所驱动的。它也被考虑到土地价值和收入的变化表明在郊区出现了大量的高收入地区(Hess和Almeida, 2007)。与城市衰落相关的整体空间格局被认为受到了劳动力需求的影响,例如高收入地区的边界撤退。研究还发现,在城市衰落时期,高收入家庭向农村迁移(Muth, 2011)。这一运动被认为是家庭试图进入提供优惠税收水平和公共物品之间混合的司法管辖区。被遗弃的房屋、死气沉沉的购物中心、闲置的工厂以及其他被遗弃和空置的房产,这些都是布法罗命运逆转的明显迹象。整个城市都可以看到从生产性利用转变为废弃利用的房产,这些房产在形状、大小和以前的利用上都有很大差异(Rappaport, 2013)。然而,这样的性质不仅是经济在城市的大部队的迹象还它们与犯罪的增加,环环相扣,增强福利和健康风险,减少财产的价值和市政成本增长的方式创建一个问题这贡献减持和城市衰退的水牛(史密斯,1996)。人们认为,由于各种原因,房产空置,待售或出租的房屋空置的时间较短,度假住宅也是如此(Silverman et al., 2013)。然而,澳洲论文代写如果房主没有履行维护房屋的核心责任,包括支付财产税和日常维护,整个街区的房产价值就会下降。

The importance of amenities is considered to further understand the impact of unaffordable housing on urban decline of Buffalo. The house prices increment in the neighborhoods where the average income rises and decline where the income falls (Smith, 1996). One possibility remains within the area changes of the housing stock. It is regarded that when residents of higher incomes moves within a house, the improvisations are made within the housing stock. Similarly, when the resident with lower income moves within a house, it is more likely that they will defer the maintenance of home upon tightening of finances (Weaver and Bagchi-Sen, 2013). However, the house prices change might have further elements of driving and other neighborhood characteristics that modified when the resident’s income changes in positive direction or negative (Weaver and Bagchi-Sen, 2013). In the similar manner, the amenities of natural manner such as pleasant weather conditions or view of ocean contributes in making the place more desirable. It is also found that residing near the neighbors with high incomes provides with amenities which impact the housing demand in the neighborhood such as lower rate of crime, good schools, 澳洲论文代写increased options for entertainment and more. The method for exploring the influence of these amenities over the housing prices can be done through a measure which can point out the modifications that are not because of the housing stock changes (Glaeser and Gyourko, 2011). It controls for modification within the structure characteristic of the houses in each tract of census like the fraction that are detached houses of single family, amount of bedrooms and the average house age. Upon the comparison of the changes within income to the changes within the measure of land value, various similarities have been revealed. The changes within the income of the household and the changes in measure of land value at the tract level are found to have 65 percent correlation (Goldman, 2011). This finding implies that it is more likely that the land value changes are driven by the neighborhood features modification related to the resident’s income such as the options of entertainment, restaurants, rate of crime and quality of the schools. It is also taken into the account that the changes within the land values and income show the large number of high income areas to be present in the suburbs (Hess and Almeida, 2007). Overall spatial patterns related to the urban decline are viewed to have been impacted by the demand of labor such as boundaries retreat of areas with high income. It has also been found that the households with high incomes have moved towards the countryside during the period of urban decline (Muth, 2011). 澳洲论文代写This movement is regarded as the attempt of household to enter such jurisdiction that offers the mix between the preferred tax levels and the public goods. The derelict housing, moribund strip malls, factories of dormant manner and other abandoned and vacant properties are amid the highly visible signs of the reversing fortune of Buffalo. Properties which have been converted from the productive utilization to the disuse are seen across the city and such properties vary greatly in the shape, size and former utilization (Rappaport, 2013). However, such properties are not only the sign of large forces of economy within the city but also they are interlinked with the increment of crime, enhanced risk to the welfare and health, reduction in the value of property and growing costs of municipal manner creates them an issue which contributes in the disinvestment and the urban decline of Buffalo (Smith, 1996). It is considered that properties remain vacant for variety of concerns, a house of sale or rent remain vacant for a short time and similarly with the vacation homes (Silverman et al., 2013). However, the property values of the entire neighborhood declines if the owner does not fulfill the core responsibility of maintaining the house, which involves payments澳洲论文代写 of property tax and routine maintenance.