“李泾作品”中曾经看到，他把云南大部分族群视为“野蛮”，“原始”，这从他的选词以及对性习俗，发型，服饰的描述中可见一斑，“云南智月”中的婚姻仪式和葬礼仪式。另一方面，近代民族受到尊重和赞赏。人们认识到这些民族在中国统一进程中的重要性。蒋介石在1945年8月的讲话中强调，要团结各民族，抵制外来侵略，实现民族独立自由（Schoppa 2011）。此外，他还强调不同民族之间的平等，而不是把它们视为野蛮的。蒋介石在他的讲话中强调了另外一个事实：“我们有三个最重要的目标，而实现这三个目标是我们最紧迫的任务……在战争中，我们必须团结全国各族人民，共同努力完成我们的三重任务“（Ebrey PB，1993，pp404-5）。从上面的描述可以看出对民族态度的戏剧性转变。基于态度差异的不同方面，本文主要侧重于对这种差异的基本解释。
The paper aims at comparing the attitude towards the ethnic groups displayed in the writings of modern Chinese statesman, Chiang Kai-shek, and some former politicians or scholars from Yuan Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. By comparing the works or speeches of Wang Fuzhi, Li Jing and Chiang Kai-shek, many differences such as visions of Chinese identityor other changes have been seen, of which the change of attitudes towards ethnic groups is one of them.
It has been seen in the Works by Li Jing that he regarded most of the ethnic groups in Yunnan as “barbaric” and “raw”, which is evident from his choice of words as well as his descriptions of the sexual practices, hairstyle, clothing, marriage and burial rituals in his book named Yunnan Zhilue. On the other hand, in modern times ethnic groups are respected and appreciated. People have realized the vital importance of these ethnic groups in the process of unification of China. In the speech of Chiang Kai-shek on August 1945, he stressed upon the importance of uniting with different ethnic groups in order to resist foreign aggression and attain national independence and freedom (Schoppa 2011). Moreover, he also emphasized on the fact that equality among different ethnic groups rather than considering them as barbaric. In his speeches, Chiang Kai-shek emphasized on another fact that “we had three most important goals and the attainment of these constituted our most urgent task… During the war we had to unite all the ethnic groups within the nation and strive together to complete our threefold task” (Ebrey P B, 1993, pp404-5). From the descriptions above a dramatic shift of the attitude towards ethnic groups can be seen. On the basis of the different aspects of differences in attitudethis paper mainly focuses on the underlying explanations for such differences.