澳洲代写论文:个体艺术品

澳洲代写论文:个体艺术品

Robin A Williams和David Edge定义的技术社会塑造(SST)是一个充满与个体艺术品和技术创新的系统和设计相关的选择的概念。 SST于1980年出现在MacKenzie和Wajcman的有影响力的集合中(MacKenzie&Wajcman,1999)。与此同时,Pinch和Bijker的技术社会建构和Callon和Latour的演员网络理论等其他框架也付诸实践。所有这些模式中的批评的共同特征是技术决定论和线性创新模式。因为它关注社会力量在发展技术和塑造创新选择中的作用,所以这些模型的SST显着。 SST对技术决定论至关重要,它指称技术不受人类选择的影响;相反,它有自己的影响社会的发展道路(MacKenzie&Wajcman,1999)。因此,SST的基础是通过探索不同的技术选择及其物质后果,发现技术与社会之间的相互关系。

澳洲代写论文:个体艺术品
技术建构论与决定论的论点
这两个竞争力代表了频谱的两端。 SST理论是由于技术经济,理性和线性的技术及其发展概念而发展起来的。这种方法强调了社会和政治力量在实现社会技术变革中的作用。 SST可以广泛地解释为一个涵盖广泛研究领域的模型,分析社会和技术在技术发展中的相互影响(Williams&Edge,1996)。另一方面,技术决定论是一种还原主义理论,旨在解释技术变化与社会性质之间的因果关系。它断言人类事物不能控制技术变化,而是试图估计技术变化对人类行为的影响程度(Smith&Marx,1994)。
技术决定论理论是由Thorstein Veblen开发的,围绕着一个社会的性质由其中发生的技术变化所定义的命题进行的。按照这种方法,技术被认为是社会文化的驱动因素,并决定其历史进程(Smith&Marx,1994)。

澳洲代写论文:个体艺术品

Social shaping of technology (SST) as defined by Robin A Williams and David Edge is a concept full of choices related to the system and designs of individual artefacts and technological innovation. SST emerged as a technological model in 1980, in the influential collection of MacKenzie and Wajcman (MacKenzie & Wajcman, 1999). Along with this, other frameworks like social construction of technology by Pinch and Bijker and actor-network theory by Callon and Latour came into practice. The common feature of criticism in all these models was technological determinism and linear model of innovation. SST from these models significantly as it focuses on role of social forces in developing technology and shaping innovation choices. SST is critical with respect to technological determinism which alleges that technology is not influenced by human choices; instead it has its own path towards development which influences the society (MacKenzie & Wajcman, 1999). Hence, SST is based on the finding a mutual relationship between shaping of technology and society by exploring divergent technical choices and their material consequences.

澳洲代写论文:个体艺术品
The Technological Constructivist vs. Determinist argument
These two competing forces represent the two ends of a spectrum. SST theory developed because of techno-economical, rational and linear conceptions of technology and its development. This approach highlighted the role of social and political forces in bringing about socio-technical changes. SST can be broadly explained as a model covering wide domains of studies analysing the mutual impact of society and technology in technological development (Williams & Edge, 1996). On the other hand, technological determinism is a reductionist theory aiming to explain the cause and effect relationship between technological changes and nature of society. It asserts that human affairs have no control over technological changes rather it tries to estimate the degree to which technical changes impact human actions (Smith & Marx, 1994).
Theory of Technological determinism was developed by Thorstein Veblen, revolving around the proposition that nature of a society is defined by the technological changes taking place therein. As per this approach, technology is considered as a driving factor of society’s culture and determines its historical course (Smith & Marx, 1994).

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