Alternate Gradient Force magnetometer, the AGFM is a force instrument and it has three main parts. Firstly, the instrument has the capability to apply magnetic field to the sample at hand. The magnetic field is a known magnetic field meaning it is not a random field of a random value. In this, the instrument could have different generating strengths as per the need of the instrument. Much of the methods of generation have come into generation because of Flanders who was seen to create different coil combinations. An alternating field that was used with the gradient perpendicular resulted in a situation where a resonant extension was created. The resonant extension in magnetic field generation is significant and the use of the AGFM ensured that the resonant element remains at room temperature. The piezoelectric bimorph is at room temperature here. The sample temperature can be varied here, and it is usually varied anywhere between 77 and 900 K. This form of variation possible on the sample holds the advantage a non-necessity of a nulling coil. Where in the past, the magnetic field generational had to be reconsidered based on needs of nulling coils, here there is no constrain to do so. Similarly, excessive frequency tracking is usually done with experiments and this is improved.
The second main part in the use of the AGFM as a force instrument is how the instrument must need a controllable source of field gradient. In conventional means, this is achieved by ensuring coils that have the appropriate geometry. The resulting oscillatory forces will be calculated from the sample and the sample is attached directly to a mechanically compliant system. Displacement is enhanced greatly at this point because of the attachment of sample to the compliance system.
The alternating gradient field magnetometer is made up of a sensitivity which surpasses the conventional VSMs by more than a 1000 times. It is much quicker to use when compared with a SWUID magnetometer and generates point by point data that could be used and compiled quite easily. The comparable working space is hence much more efficient as well. As Flanders presented it, there is a magnetic sample that is unused in incorporation with a piezoelectric element and the sample is mounted at the end of the cantilevered rod. Sample magnetization is done by means of DC field. The sample will at the same time be subjected to an alternating field gradient. An alternating force is hence created because of the impact of the alternating field. This force is directly proportional to two things, 1) the magnitude of the field gradient and 2) the magnitude moment of the sample that has been considered.
Cantilever rod starts deflecting at this point of alternating force applications and it can be observed that the resulting deflection will result in a volte output. The voltage output is then measured and this is measured at the piezoelectric element output. Output signal is found to be amplified greatly because of the mechanical resonance frequencies that are created by the forces. Studies indicate that the magnetic frequency can be answered from 100–1000 Hz, and is seen to have a Q value of around 25–250.
There are some constrains such as the effects of the acoustic noise or other form of mechanical noise in the environment. Thus, the measurements in experiments to understand sensitivity and operation environment attempt to use only a signal to noise ratio in the form of 500 on a 25‐μm. Measurements are seen to range from different temperature of 77 and 400.
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