Academic writing is about thinking and analyzing information presented from sources. It is important for the writer to look into various facets of the information in order to avoid any bias (Andreescu, 2013.). The writer makes a central assertion. From this, the writer looks into various sides of the arguments. Critical analysis of the text should be done in this process. It should ensure that there are both views presented for a claim. An argument is made in the essay in order to understand the implications of each viewpoint. This is essential to avoid any conceptions of bias (Richards, 2014.). When a viewpoint is considered biased, it looses credibility. People do not give importance to a biased one-sided view of an argument. There should be other factors considered in order for the essay to be precise and accurate. From this, typically, the essay concludes with analysis of the initial argument proposed by the writer.
In order to make a good argumentative claim, it is important to have a strong research methodology (Richards, 2014). Descriptive or qualitative data that are used depend on the type of argument or claim made by the author. Primary and secondary sources are used in order to support a particular viewpoint. Paraphrasing, quotations and summary are the three forms in which information is used (Richards, 2014.).
In the process of Quotations, direct quotes made by another person are presented in the essay (Luke & Kearins, 2012.). While quoting, at the end of the quote in text citation must be given. It is not possible to quote paragraphs of information from multiple sources in the case of academic writing. For this purpose, paraphrasing and summary are used.
Usually in order to express different viewpoints, the concepts of paraphrasing need to be followed. Direct quotes are not allowed in all situations and hence there is a need to paraphrase the content. In this situation, paraphrasing is done essentially by changing the synonyms of the words or by changing the word form or by changing the voice of the sentence. There are some changes in the voice; tone and connective words are used for this process. Paraphrasing of information takes place in many forms (Weigle, 2013).
Summarizing refers to the creation of abstract of the main viewpoints of another author. In summarizing concept, a lot of emphasis is given to the overall viewpoint presented by the author. In summarizing, the author essentially writes down the main points of another author (Reid, 2012). In both summary and paraphrase, it should ensure that there is no plagiarism that takes place. It should ensure that in both the process of academic writing, the original author must be given due considerations. Harvard system is one of the standardized systems that are used for referencing.