澳洲代写价格-腐败原因的研究分析。在一些跨国研究中，没有明显的研究支持工资与腐败之间的负相关关系，但在一些研究中发现了消极的内涵(Mauro, 1995)。从国家的角度来看，腐败可以定义为社会经济不发达的反映。这是由于社会内部的经济发展基本上确保了高质量的教育和机构的效率。高收入水平保证了公众对什么是腐败以及如何抵制腐败有一个很好的理解，这使得腐败丑闻无处藏身(Treisman, 2007)。此外，根据You和Khagram(2005)的研究，与富人和特权阶层的人不同，穷人更容易被剥削，而且随着收入不平等加剧，他们不太可能监控富人。
Looking at sociological factors, countries with a strong family ties are crowed with corruption. In some eastern culture countries like China and India, officials accept bribery as a way of seeking benefits for not only themselves but their families and friends. Inherent nepotism ideologies are also seen to be in practice in these cultures (Lipset, & Lenz, 2000). Additionally, influenced by historical tradition, various religions are differently linked to the level of corruption. (Treisman, 2000) addresses that Protestantism, which arose against the state, is much more likely to denounce and monitor any misuse of power. Simultaneously, religion alleviates corruption by way of reducing nepotism as individuals’ attitude towards their families and other citizens are equal (Treisman, 2000). Hence religion and ideologies held by individuals regarding religion is a another cause that can be used to impede corruption.
Another important factor that needs to be considered is the freedom of the press. Press freedom is another vital role in detecting corruption (Brunetti, &Weder, 2003). To be specific, a free press builds a platform that information concerning government and sector misbehaviour can be provided, at the same time, the public can complaint and expose bribery scandals by writing anonymous letters (O’Rourke & Brown 2003). Freedom of the press creates a fear that the people who indulge in corruptions will be exposed. This is a form of public shaming of the individuals who dare to indulge in unethical practice. In lieu of the ideology of Tan and Wang (2011), free press acts as an external control mechanism increasing the cost of being punished. This is a form on non-governmental intervention that has powerful control of the system. It has been proved empirically that higher the freedom of press lesser is the incidence of corruption (Wilson, 2008). This shows that press can be external controllers of corruption. Another factor that has been proposed by the anthropologists is gender. Interestingly, some investigation results suggest that women are disgusted with bribery and unwilling to take risks. Owing to this factor in countries where women are in charge and have more discretionary powers, there is reduction of corruption in those areas.
In essence, corruption itself has various forms and each form is affected by several determinants that correspond with each other, thus, there are no clear boundaries between those variable. For instance, the history of a country influences its current regime and religion, then have a further impact on legal system. Identically, economic underdevelopment leads to a high level of corruption so that the gap between rich and poor is gradually increase and vice versa. Analysing cross categories, Svensson (2005) argues that a country’s income level shaped its institutional quality. Chowdhury, (2004) and Mocan (2008) discussed effects of democracy on freedom of press and gender equality respectively.
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